Anyone who’s ever been a youngster is probably going conversant in the query, “Why aren’t you doing something productive?” If only I knew, as an angsty 15-year-old, what I know after conducting the research for this article. If only I could respond to my parents with the brilliant retort, “You know, the concept of productiveness truly dates again to earlier than the 1800s.” If only I could ask, “Do you imply ‘productive’ in an financial or fashionable context?”

Back then, I’d have been despatched to my room for “acting smart.” But in the present day, I’m a nerdy grownup who’s curious to know the place in the present day’s widespread fascination with productiveness comes from. There are countless instruments and apps that assist us get extra achieved — however the place did they start? 

If you ask me, productiveness has grow to be a booming enterprise. And it isn’t simply my not-so-humble opinion — numbers and historical past help it. Let’s step again in time, and learn how we bought right here, and the way getting stuff achieved turned an trade.

What Is Productivity?

The Economic Context

Dictionary.com defines productiveness as “the quality, state, or fact of being able to generate, create, enhance, or bring forth goods and services.” In an financial context, the which means is analogous — it’s primarily a measure of the output of products and companies out there for financial alternate.

How we are likely to view productiveness in the present day is a bit totally different. While it stays a measure of getting stuff achieved, it looks like it’s gone a bit off the rails. It’s not only a measure of output anymore — it’s the concept of compressing each little bit of output that we will from a single day. It’s about getting extra achieved in shrinking quantities of time.

It’s a basic idea that appears to exist at each stage, together with a federal one — the Brookings Institution experiences that even the U.S. authorities, for its half, “is doing more with less” by attempting to implement extra applications with a reducing variety of consultants on the payroll.

The Modern Context

And it’s not simply the federal government. Many employers — and workers — try to emulate this strategy. For instance, CBRE Americas CEO Jim Wilson informed Forbes, “Our clients are focused on doing more and producing more with less. Everybody’s focused on what they can do to boost productivity within the context of the workplace.”

It is sensible that somebody would view that widespread perspective as an alternative. There was an unmet want for instruments and sources that will clear up the omnipresent never-enough-hours-in-the-day downside. And so it was monetized to the purpose the place, in the present day, we have now issues like $25 notebooks — the Bullet Journal, to be precise — and numerous apps that promise to assist us accomplish one thing at any time of day.

But how did we get right here? How did the concept of getting stuff achieved grow to be an trade?

A Brief History of Productivity

Pre-1800s

Productivity and Agriculture

In his article “The Wealth Of Nations Part 2 — The History Of Productivity,” funding strategist Bill Greiner does an wonderful job of inspecting this idea on a purely financial stage. In its earliest days, productiveness was largely restricted to agriculture — that’s, the manufacturing and consumption of meals. Throughout the world round that point, rural populations vastly outnumbered those in urban areas, suggesting that fewer folks had been devoted to non-agricultural trade.

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Source: United Nations Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

On high of that, previous to the 1800s, meals preservation was, at most, archaic. After all, refrigeration wasn’t really available until 1834, which meant that crops needed to be consumed quick, earlier than they spoiled. There was little room for surplus, and the focus was mainly on survival. The thought of “getting stuff done” didn’t actually exist but, suppressing the concept of productiveness.

The Birth of the To-Do List

It was shortly earlier than the 19th century that to-do lists started to floor, as properly. In 1791, Benjamin Franklin recorded what was one of the earliest-known forms of it, principally with the intention of contributing one thing of worth to society every day — the checklist opened with the query, “What good shall I do this day?”

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Source: Daily Dot

The gadgets on Franklin’s checklist appeared to point a shift in focus from survival to finishing day by day duties — issues like “dine,” “overlook my accounts,” and “work.” It was nearly a precursor to the U.S. Industrial Revolution, which is estimated to have begun inside the first two decades of the nineteenth century. The New York Stock & Exchange Board was officially established in 1817, for instance, signaling large adjustments to the concept of commerce — society was drifting away from the singular aim of survival, to broader aspirations of monetization, comfort, and scale.

1790 – 1914

The Industrial Revolution truly began in Great Britain in the mid-1700s, and commenced to point out indicators of existence in the U.S. in 1794, with the invention of the cotton gin — which mechanically eliminated the seeds from cotton vegetation. It elevated the speed of manufacturing a lot that cotton ultimately turned a number one U.S. export and “vastly elevated the wealth of this nation,” writes Joseph Wickham Roe.

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Source: Gregory Clark

It was one of many first steps in a societal step towards automation — to require much less human labor, which regularly slowed down manufacturing and resulted in smaller output. Notice within the desk beneath that, starting in 1880, equipment added the best worth to the U.S. financial system. So from the invention of the cotton gin to the 1913 unveiling of Ford’s inaugural assembly line (be aware that “automotive” was added to the desk beneath in 1920), there was a typical aim among the many many advances of the Industrial Revolution: To produce extra in — you guessed it — much less time.

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Source: Joel Mokyr

1914 – 1970s

Pre-War Production

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Source: Joel Mokyr

Advances in expertise — and the ensuing larger fee of manufacturing — meant more employment was becoming available in industrial sectors, reducing the agricultural workforce. But folks could have additionally grow to be busier, resulting in the invention and sale of consumable scheduling instruments, like paper day planners.

According to the Boston Globe, the rising reputation of day by day diaries coincided with industrial development, with one of many earliest identified to-do lists out there for buy — the Wanamaker Diary — debuting within the 1900s. Created by division retailer proprietor John Wanamaker, the planner’s pages had been interspersed with print adverts for the shop’s catalogue, reaching two newly industrial objectives: Helping an more and more busier inhabitants plan its days, in addition to promoting the products that will assist to make life simpler.

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Source: Boston Globe

World War I

But there was a disruption to productiveness within the 1900s, when the U.S. entered World War I, from April 1917 to the warfare’s finish in November 1918. Between 1918 and no less than 1920 both industrial production and the labor force shrank, setting the tone for a number of years of financial instability. The stock market grew quickly after the war, only to crash in 1929 and lead to the 10-year Great Depression. Suddenly, the main target was on survival once more, particularly with the U.S. entrance into World War II in 1941.

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Source: William D. O’Neil

But look intently on the above chart. After 1939, the U.S. GDP truly grew. That’s as a result of there was a revitalized need for production, mostly of war materials. On high of that, the World War II period noticed the introduction of girls into the workforce in giant numbers — in some nations, women comprised 80% of the total addition to the workforce during the war.

World War II and the Evolving Workforce

The rising presence of girls within the workforce had main implications for the way in which productiveness is considered in the present day. Starting no later than 1948 — three years after World War II’s end — the number of women in the workforce only continued to grow, in keeping with the U.S. Department of Labor.

That suggests bigger numbers of girls had been stepping away from full-time home roles, however many nonetheless had sure calls for at residence — by 1975, for example, mothers of children under 18 made up nearly half of the workforce. That created a newly unmet want for comfort — a solution to fulfill these calls for at work and at residence.

Once once more, a rising share of the inhabitants was strapped for time, however had rising obligations. That created a brand new alternative for sure industries to current new options to what was a virtually 200-year-old downside, however had been reframed for a contemporary context. And it started with meals manufacturing.

1970s – 1990s

The 1970s and the Food Industry

With extra folks — women and men — spending much less time at residence, there was a better want for comfort. More time was spent commuting and dealing, and fewer time was spent making ready meals, for instance.

The meals trade, due to this fact, was one of many first to reply in sort. It acknowledged that the time out there to everybody for sure family chores was starting to decrease, and commenced to supply options that helped folks — say it with us — accomplish extra in fewer hours.

Those options truly started with packaged meals like cake mixes and canned goods that dated back to the 1950s, when TV dinners also hit the market — 17 years later, microwave ovens became available for about $500 each.

But the 1970s noticed an uptick in quick meals consumption, with Americans spending roughly $6 billion on it at the start of the decade. As Eric Schlosser writes in Fast Food Nation, “A nation’s diet can be more revealing than its art or literature.” This rising availability and consumption of ready meals revealed that we had been turning into obsessive about maximizing our time — and with, in a phrase, productiveness.

The Growth of Time-Saving Technology

Technology turned a much bigger a part of the image, too. With the invention of the personal computer in the 1970s and the World Wide Web in the 1980s, productiveness options had been turning into extra digital. Microsoft, founded in 1975, was one of many first to supply them, with a suite of programs released in the late 1990s to assist folks keep organized, and combine their to-do lists with an more and more on-line presence.

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Source: Wayback Machine

It was preceded by a 1992 model of a smartphone referred to as Simon, which included moveable scheduling options. That launched the concept of having the ability to remotely ebook conferences and handle a calendar, saving time that will have been spent on such duties after returning to 1’s desk. It paved the way in which for calendar-ready PDAs, or private digital assistants, which became available in the late 1990s.

By then, the concept of productiveness was not getting ready to turning into an trade — it was an trade. It would merely grow to be a much bigger one within the a long time to comply with.

The Early 2000s

The Modern To-Do List

Once digital productiveness instruments turned out there within the 1990s, the discharge of recent and improved applied sciences got here at a outstanding fee — particularly when in comparison with the tempo of developments in previous centuries.

In addition to Microsoft, Google is credited as turning into a pacesetter on this area. By the end of 2000, it won two Webby Awards and was cited by PC Magazine for its “uncanny knack for returning extraordinarily related outcomes.” It was one more type of time-saving expertise, by serving to folks discover the knowledge they had been in search of in a approach that was extra seamless than, say, utilizing a library card catalog.

In April 2006, Google Calendar was unveiled, turning into one of many first technologies that allowed users to share their schedules with others, serving to to mitigate the time-consuming exchanges typically required of establishing conferences. It wasn’t lengthy earlier than Google additionally launched Google Apps for Your Domain that summer season, offering companies with an all-in-one resolution — e-mail, voicemail, calendars, and net improvement instruments, amongst others.

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Source: Wayback Machine

During the primary 10 years of the century, Apple was experiencing a model revitalization. The first iPod was released in 2001, adopted by the MacBook Pro in 2006 and the iPhone in January 2007 — all of which might have big implications for the widespread thought of productiveness.

2008 – 2014

Search Engines That Talk — and Listen

When the iPhone 4S was released in 2011, it got here outfitted with Siri, “an intelligent assistant that helps you get things done just by asking.” Google had already implemented voice search technology in 2008, however it didn’t garner fairly as a lot public consideration — most certainly as a result of it required a separate app obtain. Siri, conversely, was already put in within the Apple cellular {hardware}, and customers solely needed to push the iPhone’s residence button and ask a query conversationally.

But each supplied additional time-saving options. To hear climate and sports activities scores, for examples, customers not needed to open a separate app, look ahead to a televised report, or sort in searches. All they needed to do was ask.

By 2014, voice search had grow to be commonplace, with a number of manufacturers — together with Microsoft and Amazon — providing their very own applied sciences. Here’s how its main pillars look in the present day:

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The Latest Generation of Personal Digital Assistants

With the 2014 debut of Amazon Echo, voice activation wasn’t nearly looking out anymore. It was about full-blown synthetic intelligence that would combine with our day-to-day lives. It was beginning to converge with the Internet of Things — the expertise that allowed issues within the residence, for instance, to be managed digitally and remotely — and continued to switch handbook, human steps with clever machine operation. We had been busier than ever, with some reporting 18-hour workdays and, due to this fact, diminishing time to get something achieved exterior of our employment.

Here was the most recent resolution, no less than for many who may afford the expertise. Users didn’t must manually look issues up, activate the information, or write down to-do and buying lists. They may ask a machine to do it with a command so simple as, “Alexa, order more dog food.”

Of course, competitors would ultimately enter the image and Amazon would not stand alone within the private assistant expertise area. It made sense that Google — who had lengthy since established itself as a pacesetter within the productiveness trade — would enter the market with Google Home, released in 2016, and providing a lot of the identical comfort because the Echo.

Of course, neither one has the identical precise capabilities as the opposite — but. But let’s pause right here, and mirror on how far we’ve come.

2015 to 2020

Smart Devices are Everywhere

The Amazon Echo was just the start of good units that would assist us plan out our day. We now have good thermostats that schedule our heating and cooling, fridges that notify us after we’re low on meals, TVs with each streaming service we want, and a handful of different home equipment that schedule themselves round on our way of life.

While some may fear that good units may restrict our stage of motivation and productiveness, others may disagree. Smart units typically free us up from mundane duties whereas permitting us extra time to give attention to extra productive issues which might be extra necessary.

Big Data Powers Business Productivity

With expertise like synthetic intelligence, automation, analytics instruments. and call administration programs, we are actually capable of collect extra information about our audiences and clients rapidly with the clicking of only a few buttons. This information has allowed entrepreneurs, in addition to strategists in different departments to construct techniques that interact audiences, please clients, generate income, and even provide main ROI. 

Want to see an instance? Here’s an ideal case research on how one profitable company used AI and analytics software program to collect, report, and strategize round invaluable consumer information.

Offices Rely on Productivity Tools

We’ve come a good distance from Google Calendar. Each day, you may use a messaging system like Slack, a video software program like Zoom, or task-management instruments like Trello, Asana, or Jira to maintain your work on monitor. 

Aside from retaining workers on job, these instruments have been particularly necessary for retaining groups linked and on the identical web page. As fashionable workplaces more and more embrace distant and worldwide teammates, they’re additionally investing in digital job administration and productiveness instruments that may maintain everybody within the loop.  

Looking to spice up your digital instrument stack? Check out this checklist of productiveness instruments, particularly if you happen to’re working remotely. 

Where Productivity Is Now — and Where It’s Going

We began this journey within the 1700s with Benjamin Franklin’s to-do checklist. Now, right here we’re, over two centuries later, with clever machines making these lists and managing our lives for us.

Have a have a look at the overall belongings of some leaders on this area (as of the writing of this submit, in USD):

Over time — lots of of years, actually — expertise has made issues extra handy for us. But because the above checklist exhibits, it’s additionally earned some huge cash for lots of people. And these figures depart little doubt that, in the present day, productiveness is an trade, and a booming one at that.

Editor’s Note: This weblog submit was initially printed in January 2017, however was up to date in July 2020 for comprehensiveness and freshness. 

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